Moored buoys, drifting buoys, current meters, etc


The observation platforms are required for ocean state forecast and weather prediction. The newly proposed ocean observation systems shall provide richer and more accurate time series data sets which are difficult to build with moving/oscillating platforms. NIOT has an experience in developing Sea Bottom or Ocean Bottom Pressure Recorder and time series observations using moored buoy network. Expertise developed and the knowledge gained would be useful to develop such new instruments. These technologies developed will have spinoff in other activities like surveillance in the ocean and these would be unmanned, unattended and self powered automated ocean observation system. The systems proposed have the following advantages

  • Long Term, Unattended, Multi Parameter observations
  • User Specified Sensors fit
  • Integration with any Cabled Underwater Observatory
  • Deployment as Completely Autonomous, Standalone System
  • Coastal, Continental Shelf, and Deep Ocean Configurations

a) Objectives:

  1. To collect marine meteorological and oceanographic data using moored Met-Ocean buoy systems and to disseminate data to INCOIS
  2. To collect water level data in deep sea using Bottom Pressure Recorder(BPR) and disseminate data to INCOIS for Tsunami Early Warning System
  3. To calibrate and validate sensors and buoy (Met Ocean & Tsunami) systems
  4. To maintain HF Radar sites installed along Indian coast.
  5. Develop and Demonstrate proto type underwater observation systems, platforms and devices
  6. To establish INSAT communication dedicated specifically for real time communication of ocean observation systems

Participating Institutions:

  1. National Institute of Ocean Technology, Chennai
  2. Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Hyderabad.

Implementation Plan:

The trend to develop fully automatic observing systems, using new observing and information technologies will continue; Access to real-time and raw data will be improved; Observing system test-beds will be used for inter comparison and evaluation of new systems and development of guidelines for integration of observing platforms and their implementation; and Observational data will be collected and transmitted in digital forms.

Presently the ship to shore communication is done using Inmarsat-C terminals. There is a need for more bandwidth from Indian satellites covering the sea which can support two way communications for ship to shore. This will reduce dependence on foreign satellites for strategic communication and also for commercial shipping. Thus a satellite communication independently for ocean observation systems is very much required.

Continuation of observational program on long term basis such as next two decades (20 years period) to obtain continuous data and to serve the nation technologically as well as to represent India among the international technical bodies by deploying and maintaining the moored buoys, augmented with sensors, in the Indian seas

Maintaining tsunami buoys and Bottom pressure recorder as a part tsunami early warning system and establishment of an Optimal Tsunami Buoy Network in Indian Seas.

Maintaining HF radars and disseminate online data from HF radars on surface currents and waves along Indian coast.

The following activities to be taken up:

  • Calibration of sensors and buoys to obtain the quality data
  • Technology Demonstration of Moored Sea Bed Observatory (MSO)
  • Proto type development of Fixed Offshore Reference Platforms (FORP)
  • INSAT Communication for Ocean Observation Systems
  • Development and testing of materials for ocean observation systems

The buoy, sensors and mooring system will be procured from the Indian and foreign vendors appropriately. The tsunami buoy systems consist of two units – a surface buoy and the Bottom Pressure Recorder (BPR). Communication between BPR and the surface buoy is established through acoustic modems and surface buoys uses satellite to communicate the recorded values to shore station. The inspection of individual component, testing, Integration of the buoy will be executed at NIOT. Periodic cruises will be taken up on-board vessels to deploy and to conduct service and maintenance of these buoys systems.

The basic design and site selection will be done in-house. The sensor and critical components required will be imported. The system integration will be performed in-house. After the component level testing, new sensor testing and integration, initial trials will be conducted in shallow waters. Subsequently, on the basis of the inputs and data collected, system will be tested for short duration in deep waters. Newer materials for moored buoy systems would be tested and developed through Inter-Institutional projects. In house calibration facility for met-ocean sensors would be established. This also involves larger capacity building exercise as this work requires special expertise and dedicated manpower. Newer R&D projects in design and development of ocean observation systems would be undertaken through collaboration with other Institutions in India and abroad under the Inter institutional projects.. NIOT is in the process of establishing Sea Front facility and it is proposed to establish OOS laboratory for testing and calibration. This facility will help to execute other new programmes envisaged earlier such as Reference Platform, Moored Sea bed observatory, Fixed Offshore Reference Platforms (FORP) etc., This Coastal Ocean Observing system Laboratory will be useful for the assembly, data reception, service, and storage and maintenance facility and also for field testing of indigenously developed equipment

Dedicated INSAT communication will be established in collaboration with ISRO

d) Deliverables:

  1. Real time data on meteorological and oceanographic parameters from moored buoys and tsunami systems.
  2. Underwater observation systems, platforms and devices.

Budget requirement : 386 crores

Budget Requirement
Name of the Scheme 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 Total
Moored buoys, Drifting buoys, etc 60 70 90 80 86 386


Last Updated On 04/07/2015 - 13:38
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